服务器里的中国 - 中国记忆

 找回密码
 立即注册
查看: 1557|回复: 4

(英)罗素:《中国问题》

[复制链接]
发表于 2014-5-20 18:34:17 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 拯救家园 于 2014-5-20 18:36 编辑

按:1920年10月中,英国哲学家罗素(Bertrand Russell,1872年-1970年)绕道西伯利亚抵达中国,在北京大学访学,直至次年7月。此前他访问过前苏联,著有《布尔什维克主义的理论与实践》(1920)。他是一个社会主义者,不满于金融资本控制下的西方文明;他也是一个和平主义者,一战期间曾因反战而遭到监禁,以至被逐出剑桥讲坛。但他并不欣赏俄国发生的一切,1920年夏,当他跋涉于伏尔加河畔,向着东方智慧的国度进发时,他说,他心里充满了痛苦和疑惑,期盼早日踏上中国,以“寻找新的希望”。可是当时的中国,是世界第一贫弱大国,能让他看到解救西方“工业主义”的希望,觅得医治世界性“强迫劳动”的良方么?在中国,他一边接触社会,熟悉各界生活,一边阅读有关文献,了解中国文化和哲学。经过一番观察、体验、比较,他把所思所得写成一本书,于1922年出版,这本书就是The Problem of China(《中国问题》,秦悦译,学林出版社1996年)。

罗素眼见的中国,面临的政治经济问题一大堆;中国的存亡系乎一时,而去从则难以卜知。这些他在书里都谈到了。如果他只限于谈论这些问题,那么,时隔80年,《中国问题》到今天大概就只有研究民国史的人才会去找来看。可是我们现在读这本书,会发现其中很多内容仍值得玩味;凡是关心中西文化异同的人,都会有兴趣于这本书,因为那里面涉及中国文化最根本的一些东西。罗素称,不管对于中国还是人类,文化问题都是根本,“只要文化问题能够解决,无论采用哪种政治或经济制度去实现这一目的,我都能接受”(中译本1页-2页)。这么说,他没有任何政治立场,愿意接受任何社会制度,并且是无条件的接受。这个说法让我感到意外,因为,第一,前面说过,罗素并不喜欢苏式社会主义,他甚至劝中国人不要跟从苏联的榜样,否则迟早有一天会后悔;第二,他是一个研究数理逻辑出身的哲学家,措辞恐怕不会那么绝对。我核查了原文,发现跟中译文有点出入。原文是:if these〔cultural questions〕could be solved,I would accept,with more less equanimity,any political or economic system which ministered to that end(p.10).这就对了,“with more or less equanimity”这个修饰语漏不得:不是任何政治经济制度他“都能接受”,而是“或多或少都能坦然接受”。另外,对这句话我们须注意它的虚拟语气。罗素是说,假如文化问题能够解决,他愿意如何如何,而实际上文化问题在他看来要比政治经济问题繁复得多,靠一两代人解决不了。不过,有一点是明确的:罗素把文化视为决定中国乃至世界未来发展的第一要素。他写《中国问题》,虽说大半篇幅用于讲评时政,主旨则在探讨中西文化的差异和短长,以及相互借鉴、共同繁荣的可能,而政治、经济、外交等等只是他展开论述的外部场景。今日的中国面貌一新,所处的场景也已绝然不同。罗素当年提出的文化问题,解决得怎样了?读着《中国问题》,我不禁想,假若他还在世,再访中国,他或许会高兴地看到:有的问题已经基本解决;有的问题已经缓和,并且有望解决;而有些问题仍然棘手,其解决尚须时日。至于他最为憧憬的大结局,即东西方文化的合流与互惠,乃是人类文明发展的必然方向;虽有种种牵制因素,但世界诸文化终将求同存异,融为一体。
 楼主 发表于 2014-5-20 18:37:30 | 显示全部楼层
罗素《中国问题》(Problem of China)前言

要判断一个社会的优劣,我们必须不仅仅考虑这个社会内部有多少善与恶,也要看它在促使别的社会产生善与恶方面起何作用,还要看这个社会享有的善较之于他处的恶而言有多少。如此说来,中国要胜于我们英国。我们的繁盛以及我们努力为自己攫取的大部分东西都是依靠侵略弱国而得来的,而中国的力量不至于加害他国,他们完全是依靠自己的能力来生存的。

像这样道德上的泛泛而谈,与中国的实际问题并非毫无关系。我们可以说是因为某种无意识的信仰而产生了今日的工业和商业文明,反过来又由于工业文明而更坚定了这种信仰。这种信仰决定了什么东西是有价值的。但在中国,人们只有在看见自己正受到一个不知不觉间建立在完全不同的价值标准上的社会的挑战时,才会领悟到这些信仰。例如,进步和效率,中国人除了受过西方教育的以外都不以为然。正因为重视进步和效率,我们变得富强了,而中国人正是由于忽视进步和效率,从总体上来看,直到我们骚扰他们之前,还保持着国泰民安。如果我们没有明确的价值标准的话,将很难比较这两种截然不同的成就;而且这种价值标准还必须或多或少是自觉的,否则我们将低估外域文化的价值,因为我们对他人的短处往往印象深刻,而对自己的缺点却会习以为常。


In judging of a community, we have to consider, not only how much of good or evil there is within the community, but also what effects it has in promoting good or evil in other communities, and how far the good things which it enjoys depend upon evils elsewhere. In this respect, also, China is better than we are. Our prosperity, and most of what we endeavour to secure for ourselves, can only be obtained by widespread oppression and exploitation of weaker nations, while the Chinese are not strong enough to injure other countries, and secure whatever they enjoy by means of their own merits and exertions alone.

These general ethical considerations are by no means irrelevant in considering the practical problems of China. Our industrial and commercial civilization has been both the effect and the cause of certain more or less unconscious beliefs as to what is worth while; in China one becomes conscious of these beliefs through the spectacle of a society which challenges them by being built, just as unconsciously, upon a different standard of values. Progress and efficiency, for example, make no appeal to the Chinese, except to those who have come under Western influence. By valuing progress and efficiency, we have secured power and wealth; by ignoring them, the Chinese, until we brought disturbance, secured on the whole a peaceable existence and a life full of enjoyment. It is difficult to compare these opposite achievements unless we have some standard of values in our minds; and unless it is a more or less conscious standard, we shall undervalue the less familiar civilization, because evils to which we are not accustomed always make a stronger impression than those that we have learned to take as a matter of course.


 楼主 发表于 2014-5-21 01:50:05 | 显示全部楼层
罗素著《中国之问题》摘句及译文


一、在中国各阶层(意谓不论贫富贵贱)的人都喜欢说笑,从不放弃一个逗笑的机会。
All clases in China are found of laughter and never miss a chance of a joke.(原书189页)

二、他们的古音乐有些很优美,曲调优雅使人仅仅听到而止(似指古琴)。在艺术上他们爱好幽静(恬淡),在生活上则要合乎理性。
Their old music, some of which is very beautiful, makes so little noise that one can only just hear it.In art they aim at being exquisite, and in life at being reasonable.(189页)

三、外国人在中国生活得愈久,就愈喜爱中国。
…so that the foreigners, who have lived longest in China are who love the Chinese best.(190页)

四、孔子和其后学所发展者是纯讲习伦理的一个学派,没有宗教性和独断教诫,亦就不发生出一个有权力的教会机关和引致于迫害异教徒。它确实成功地开展出其整个民族所有的雍容气度和礼让习俗。礼让之风在中国非徒然为例行格套而已,即在曾一无先例的场合亦行之真切。此非限于某一社会阶层为然也,亦且见于卑微的苦力之间。
His (Confucius)system, as developed by his followers, is one of pure ethics, without religious dogma; it has not given rise to a powerful priesthood, and it has not led to persecution. It certainly has succeeded in producing a whole nation possessed of exquisite manners and perfect courtesy. Nor is Chinese courtesy merely conventional; it is quite as reliable in situations for which no precedent has been provided. And it is not confined to one class; it exists even in the humblest coolie.(190页)

五、欧洲人每以为中国人的谦恭礼让是懦弱,实则正是他的力量之所在;他即以此力量卒于制胜其历史上过去的那些外族征服者。
Europeans often regard this as weakness, but it is really strength, the strength by which the Chinese have hitherto conquered all their conquerors.(190页)

六、在基督教和回教正统的教诫上,从不容许人崇信其他宗教;但在中国此不相容性却不见有。一个人可以既信佛教又为儒士,彼此之间两不相妨。
The dogmas of Christianity and Mohammedanism, in their orthodox forms, are so framed that no man can accept both.But in China this incompatibility does not exist; a man may be both a Buddist and a Confucius because nothing in either is incompatibility with the other.(191页)

七、他们说:宗教虽多,道理却一。
…they say“religions are many, but reason is one”.(196~197页)
漱按:此虽未免笼统含混可笑,却见出其直接地信理,间接地信教。

八、中国实际上没有宗教的,此可概括其全人口,非独其社会上层为然也。其所有者只是颇为明确的伦理规范,既不严峻怕人,亦且从不存有“罪孽”观念。
China is practically destitute of religion, not only in the upper classes, but throughout the population. There is a very definite ethical code, but it is not fierce or persecuting, and does not contain the notion“sin”.(192页)

九、虽则中国文化之内过去缺少科学,但从不存在任何敌视科学之意。因此在其普及科学知识的路上不会有如往者欧洲教会之为阻碍的那样。
Although Chinese civilization has hitherto been deficient in science, it never contained anything hostile to science, and therefore the spread of scientific knowledge encounters no such obstacles as the Church put in its way in Europe.(193页)

十、西方文化的明显特点,我以为就在科学方法;中国文化的明显特点则是他们对人生意义的正确认识。吾人希望此二者应当逐渐结合在一起。
The distinctive merit of our civilization, I should say, is the scientific method; the distinctive merit of the Chinee a just conception of the ends of life. It is these two that one must hope to see gradually uniting.(194页)

十一、如其说,世界上有“不屑于战争”的民族吗,那就是中国人了。中国人的态度天然地雍容和蔼,以礼待人,亦望人报之以礼。如其让中国人选择的话,他们将成为世界上最强大的国家,却只要自由而不要霸权。
If any nation in the world could ever be“too proud to fight”,that nation would be China. The natural Chinese attitude is one of tolerance and friendliness, showing courtesy and expecting it in return. If the Chinese chose, they could be the most powerful nation in the world. But they only desire freedom, not domination.(197页)

十二、人们总以为我们对中国人最大的善举就是能够使他们亦得以达成如同我们自己这个模样。我认为这是莫大的错误。在我看来,一般中国人较之一般的英国人要快活些,即便他是一个贫苦人也罢。其所以然者,盖在世界观上这一民族较比吾人更富有人情和高雅些。
Chinese, we are convinced that the kindest thing we can do to them is to make them like ourselves. I believe this to be a profound mistake. It seemed to me that the average Chinaman, even if he is miscerably poor, is happier than the average Englishman, and is happier because the nation is built upon a more humane and civilized outlook than our own.(197页)

十三、我不否认中国人在和西方相反的方向上走得太偏、太远,但正为此之故,我想东西两方的接触将于彼此都会产生好结果。他们将得以向我们学取那些切合实际效用所必不可少的东西,而我们则向他们学习到某些内心智慧——这是当其他古老民族均先后衰亡以去,而他们卒赖之以独存至今者。
I do not deny that the Chinese go too far in the other direction; but for that very reason I think contact between East and West is likely to be fruitful to both parties. They may learn from us the indispensable minimum of practical efficiency, and we may learn from them something of that contemplative wisdom which has enabled them to persist while all the other nations of antiquity have perished.(197~198页)

十四、标准的西方人总想尽可能地改善其环境,殆无休止,而标准的中国人则尽可能地安于所遇,温文地享受其处境。这是中国人和说英语的人之间最根本的不同点。
The typical Westerner wishes to be the cause of as many changes as possible in his environment; the typical Chinaman wishes to enjoy as much and as delicately as possible. This difference is at the bottom of most of the contrast between China and the Englishspeaking world.(202页)

十五、中国当其接触工业文明后,其所夙有的某些高尚品德或犹将保存不失,其中有些恰为当前世界之所急切需要者。对这些风格品质我将以其心平气和置于第一位。所谓心平气和,即指其总求解决纷争于公理正义之上,而不愿用武力是已。
But perhaps something may be preserved, something of the ethical qualities in which China is supreme, and which the modern world most desperately needs. Among these qualities, I place first the pacific temper, which seeks to settle disputes on grounds of justice rather than by force.(212~213页)

十六、中国是全世界上所仅存的一个古老文明社会而不像是一个政治实体(国家)。
China is much less a political entity than a civilization—the only one that has survived from ancient times.(208页)
漱按:我曾说,过去的中国是融国家于社会,以天下而兼国家的。又说,老中国是不像国家的国家,以不要政治为政治的。此即古语所云“端拱无为”是也。

十七、我认为世界上只有中国人真正相信智慧比任何宝贵的东西更宝贵。
I think they are the only people in the world who quite genuinely believe that wisdom is more precious than rubies.(225页)
漱按:此处智慧wisdom一词应即指内心智慧contemplative wisdom而说,参看第十三则自明。

十八、中国从其资源和其人口来说,完全可能继美国之后成为世界最强大的国家。
China, by her resources and her population, is capable of being the greatest Power in the world after the United States.(241页)

十九、外国人无须乎对中国怀抱什么恐惧心理,虽然中国是一个人口巨大和资源丰富的国家。
…and that foreign nations have had no need to fear China, in spite of its immense population and resources.(192页)

廿、我写此书意在表明中国民族从一种意义上是优越过我们的;即因此义中国若竟为求其民族生存而降低到我们的水平,则于他们和我们都是不幸的。
I have tried to show in this book that the Chinese are, in certain ways, superior to us, and it would not be good either for them or for us if, in these ways, they had to descend to our level in order to preserve their existence as a nation.(241页)

廿一、中国的独立自主最终意义不在其自身,而宁在其为西方科学技术与中国夙有品德两相结合创开新局;若达不到此目的,纵然取得其政治独立抑何足贵耶?
Independence is to be sought, not as an end in itself, but as a means towards a new blend of Western skill with the traditional Chinese virtues. If this end is not achieved, political independence will have little value.(242页)

廿二、如此大业(按:指社会生产大发达)信得建成,其必须于中国传统道德有巨大变化,以发展公共精神取代其家族伦理,以其致力于私人事业者转而为忠于公务而努力。
But if this is to be done successfully, it will require a great change in Chinese morals, a development of public spirit in place of the family ethic, a transference to the public service of that honesty which already exists in private business, and a degree of energy which is at present rare.(247页)


廿三、倘若中国革新家在使得中国力足自卫时,便适度而止,不进一步向外求胜,既得安然自处便转移其为列强所迫致的实利主义作为(译注:似指军备竞赛等)而致力于科学与艺术,建成良好的社会经济体系,中国于是乃真尽其在世界上所应有的职责,为人类当前极紧要时期,开出一全新希望。此即我想奉以勉励于青年中国者。此希望是能够实现的,正为其必可能实现,中国在一切爱重人类者来说,应受到极高的尊崇。
But if Chinese reformers can have the moderation to stop when they have made China capable of selfdefence, and to abstain from the further step of foreign conquest; if, when they have become safe at home, they can turn aside from the materialistic activities imposed by the Powers, and devote their freedom to science and art and the inauguration of a better economic system—then China will have played the part in the world for which she is fitted, and will have given to mankind as a whole new hope in the moment of greatest need. It is this hope that I wish to see inspiring Young China. This hope is realizable; and because it is realizable, China deserves a foremost place in the esteem of every lover of mankind.(251~252页)

廿四、在中国所有各阶层的人较比我所熟悉的其他国人更爱欢笑;他们对任何事物都有欣赏之趣,往往一个严肃的争论却化为一个笑语而告终结。
The Chinese, of all classes, are more laughterloving than any other race with which I am acquainted;they find amusement in everything, and a dispute can always be softened by a joke.(200页)




 楼主 发表于 2014-5-21 01:51:46 | 显示全部楼层
 罗素二十年代对中国未来的预言

  

在本世纪20年代,也是中华民族多灾多难的年代,罗素对未来中国的走向作了许多天才的预言,现列举以下几段。


  “他们很可能会超过我们!”


罗素在《中西文明比较》一节中写道:“……中国的学生很能干而且特别勤奋,中、高等教育苦于缺少资金,缺少图书馆,但不缺乏最优秀的人才资源。尽管迄今为止中国文明在科学方面有缺陷,但它从来没有包含任何敌视科学的东西。……

我敢断言:假若中国人有一个稳定的政府和充裕的资金,那么在未来30年内,他们将会在科学上创造出引人注目的成就,他们很可能会超过我们,因为他们具有勤奋向上的精神,具有民族复兴的热情。”

我们到了1949年才有了一个稳定的政府,关于拥有充裕的教育资金,现在恐怕还没完全做到,但中国确实已在科学上创造出了引人注目的成就。

  

  中国应不应学习西方?怎样学习西方?


罗素在《中国人的性格》一节中说:“古老的中国本土文化与艺术已不像过去那样具有生机,孔子的儒教已不再能满足现代中国人的需求了。凡受过欧美教育的中国人都认识到,他们需要外来的新因素来振兴他们的传统文化,因而,他们开始转向西方文明,渴望使中国传统文化得到新的活力。但是,他们并不希望创建一种类似我们的文明。他们希望开拓一条更为理想的文明之路。假如中国人不被煽动尚武精神,那他们一定会创造出一种更加灿烂的文明。这种新文明将比我们西方人现在所能创造出的任何文明更令人神往。”

罗素在《中国人的文化问题》一节中又说:“我相信,假若中国人能自由地从我们西方吸收他们所需要的东西,抵制西方文明中某些坏因素对他们的影响,那么中国人完全能够从他们自己的文化传统中获得一种有机的发展,并能结出一种把西方文明和中国文明的优点珠联璧合的灿烂成果!”

中国人应不应向西方学习,应该怎样学习西方,中国人自己争论、探索了半个世纪,现在我们似乎已找到了正确的办法,而这种办法20年代罗素就已经提出并说得非常清楚了。罗素提到的“尚武”精神,是指当时的日本而言的。他认为日本人在学习西方优点的同时,也学会了西方的好战、好侵略的缺点,他认为这种东西不利于中国创造新文明。几十年的实践表明,中国人没有向西方人学习这种“尚武”精神,当然也不会重蹈日本成为战败国的覆辙。中国人正像罗素预言的那样,正在开辟一种更加灿烂的不同于西方的新文明。

  

  假如中国人选择另一种生活方式


“中国理所当然地实行变革!”罗素肯定地写道。他又在《中西文明比较》一节中说:“……中国人认为维护自我和支配他人是罪恶的,中国人几乎没有西方白种人那种对其他民族的的人民实行集权统治的欲望。……中国在世界上的衰弱,在很大程度上归于中国人的美德。中国人本质上有一种宽容和友好的态度,他们表现出谦恭有礼,并希望别人礼尚往来。假如中国人选择另一种行为方式,他们可能成为世界上最强大的民族。”

中华人民共和国的建立改变了中国人的某些行为方式,但大规模地改变中国人的行为方式却是十几年来的改革开放。现在我们应该明白,中国人经济发展、文化繁荣,进入现代文明国家行列之后,仍保持一腔宽容友好的和平心态,反对战争,保卫和平,那中国肯定会成为世界上最强大的民族,因为中国没有资本主义国家总想支配他人的缺陷。

  

  罗素最天才的预言


罗素在《中国人的性格》一节中写道:“中国只要在改进农业生产技术的同时结合移民和大规模的控制生育,是永远可以消除饥荒的。”他这里提出的计划生育观念,比马寅初“人口论”中的计划生育观点早了几十年。

在同一节中罗素又写道:“中国人民日常生活中除了有点懒散和缺乏激情外,大凡聪明能干而又多心多疑。但是,这只是他们性格的一方面。在另一方面,中国人又很会狂热激动,而且常常是一种集体的狂热激动。……正是中国人性格中的这种因素使他们变得不可捉摸,甚至对中国人的将来也难以预料。你可以想象他们中一部分人会变成积极的布尔什维克主义者、勇敢无畏的抗日救国者、狂热的基督教徒狂热地献身于某某一事业。
发表于 2014-6-6 11:17:26 | 显示全部楼层
他山石。当思考。旁观者清。
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

| 手机版|申请友链|反馈|中国记忆 Memory of China

GMT+8, 2018-10-24 01:08 , Processed in 0.046077 second(s), 20 queries , Gzip On.

服务器里的中国

Copyright © 2006-2013 Memory Of China Inc All Rights Reserved.

返回顶部